Type 4's roots go all the way back to the late 80s. The fundamental geometry and conductor compliment of Type 4 hasn't changed since 1995 because any change to the size or position of the 4-Series' 2-sized Spread-Spectrum conductor arrangement would reduce performance. Type 4 employs Carbon-Loaded insulation (absorbs RF) on the negative conductors and Nitrogen-Injected PE (minimal dielectric involvement) on the positive conductors. In addition, Type 4 includes all Solid Long-GrainCcopper (LGC) conductors
SOLID LONG-GRAIN COPPER (LGC) CONDUCTORS
Solid Long-Grain Copper (LGC) allows a smoother and clearer sound than cables using regular OFHC (Oxygen-Free High-Conductivity) copper. Solid conductors prevent strand interaction, a major source of distortion. The surface quality is critical because a conductor can be considered as a rail-guide for both the electric fields within a conductor, and for the magnetic fields outside the conductor. LGC has fewer oxides within the conducting material, less impurities, less grain boundaries, and definitively better performance
High-Inductance geometry smears sound and reduces information. Star-Quad low-inductance geometry preserves time information, preserving dynamics and clarity.
CARBON-BASED NOISE- AND CROSSTALK-DISSIPATION SYSTEM
This cable's negative conductors are covered with partially conductive Carbon-Loaded Polyethylene. This remarkable material reduces radio-frequency garbage being fed back into the amplifier. The sonic benefit is exactly the same reduction in "hash" and improved dimensionality that comes whenever RF interference is reduced in an audio circuit. In addition, a carbon layer damps interaction between positive and negative conductors, and an external Carbon-Based Noise-Dissipation System reduces external interference.
FOAMED-POLYETHYLENE INSULATION (FOR ALL POSITIVE CONDUCTORS)
Any solid material adjacent to a conductor is actually part of an imperfect circuit. Wire insulation and circuit board materials all absorb energy. Some of this energy is stored and then released as distortion. Tower, however, uses air-filled Foamed-Polyethylene Insulation on both conductors. Because air absorbs next to no energy and Polyethylene is low-loss and has a benign distortion profile, Foamed-PE, with its high air content, causes much less of the out-of-focus effect common to other materials.